IHHP Article: Dietary fat intake and lipid profiles of Iranian adolescents: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program–Heart Health Promotion from Childhood*
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Dietary fat intake and lipid profiles of Iranian adolescents: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program–Heart Health Promotion from Childhood
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Roya Kelishadi, M.D.,a,* Mahin Hashemi Pour, M.D.,b Nizal Sarraf Zadegan, M.D.,c; Manijeh Kahbazi, M.D.,d Gholamhosein Sadry, Ph.D.,e Amad Amani, M.D.,f; Rezvan Ansari, M.S.,a Hassan Alikhassy, M.S.,g and Nasrollah Bashardoust, Ph.D.h

Abstract
Objectives
To assess the serum lipid profiles of Iranian adolescents and their correlation with dietary fat intake and to evaluate the
knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of students, parents, and school staff.

Methods
The subjects of this cross-sectional study were 2000 students (1000 girls and 1000 boys), ages 11–18 years, selected by
multistage random sampling, and one of their parents (2000 subjects), as well as 500 school staff in urban and rural areas of two provinces in Iran (one for further interventions and the other for reference).
The data were obtained by questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, 3-day food record form, and a 20-item food frequency
questionnaire (FFQ). All serum lipids were determined in the same laboratory.

Results
Although the percentage of fat intake (21.2 F 0.4%) among the adolescents was within the recommended daily allowance (RDA V 30%), in most cases, the percentiles of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) were significantly higher and the percentiles of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were lower than standard values according to Lipid
Research Clinics (LRC) data; for example, the mean TC values for girls in the 11- to 14- and 15- to 18-year age groups were significantly higher than LRC standard values (169 and 172 vs. 160 and 159 mg/dl, respectively, P < 0.05). This difference was also significant in boys (167 and 168 vs. 160 and 153 mg/dl, respectively) at the P < 0.05 level.
A significant linear association was shown between adolescents’ dyslipidemia and the frequency of intake of hydrogenated fat, fast foods, cheese puffs, and potato chips ( P < 0.05).
Although the protein intake was lower than the RDA (13.4F 0.9% vs. 15%, P < 0.05), because of the highly prevalent consumption of fatty lamb meat, the frequency of red meat intake had a direct association with dyslipidemia ( P < 0.05).

Conclusion
The improper intake of high amounts of saturated fat and the observed serum lipid profile of Iranian adolescents are likely placing them at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and necessitate developing guidelines and community-based interventions. D 2004 The Institute For Cancer Prevention and Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Dietary fat intake; Lipid profile; Adolescents; Quality of fat; Knowledge; Attitude; Practice; Cardiovascular disease risk

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