IHHP Article: Diabetes and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Iran: The Isfahan Healthy Heart Program*
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Diabetes and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Iran:
The Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

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M. Sadeghi MD, H. Roohafza MD, Sh. Shirani MD,
M. Poormoghadas MD, R. Kelishadi MD,
AM. Baghaii MD, N. Sarraf-Zadegan MD


Diabetes mellitus is one of the major health problems worldwide. The aim of this study is the detection the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired glucose tolerance test (IGTT), as well as other associated risk factors in Iran.

Subjects and method
This cross sectional study was performed in three cities in central part of Iran on participant over 19 years at 2002. Sampling was conducted by multi-stage randomized cluster method. At first, a questionnaire consisting of demographic detail, drug intake and smoking status was filled. Then physical examination including measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) performed. Fasting blood sample was drawn and analyzed for sugar (FBS), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and the 2-hour postprandial glucose.
A fasting blood sugar of >126 mg/dl or a 2–hour plasma glucose of over 200 mg/dl was considered as diabetes. The impaired fasting glucose was considered with a fasting blood sugar of less than 126 mg/dl and the impaired glucose tolerance test with 2-hour plasma glucose of 140-200 mg/dl.
The collected data analyzed with t-student, chi-square and multiple logistic regression tests.

This study was performed on 12514 subjects, (48.9% males and 51.1% females). The total prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 6.7% and 5.3% in urban and rural areas and 5.4% and 7.1% in males and females, respectively. The mean blood glucose rose with aging in both sexes, in such a manner that blood glucose was higher in females and in urban areas. IGTT, known and new diabetes mellitus heightens as age increased and more than half of the diabetes cases in all age groups were newly diagnosed.
The mean blood pressure, age, BMI, waist circumference and serum lipids were higher in people with DM and IGTT especially in females.Obesity, family history of diabetes, high blood pressure, high WHR and aging were associated with a higher probability of DM, but sex had no effect on this probability.

Regarding the high prevalence of DM in the central regions of Iran, providing vast educational programs in order to prevent this disease seems essential and screening fasting blood sugar test, especially in obese subjects and those with a family history of diabetes should be taken into account.

Key words
Prevalence, diabetes, glucose tolerance test, risk factor, Iran

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