IHHP Article: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in rural and urban populations of Isfahan and Markazi Province: Results of the first phase of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program
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The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in rural and urban populations of Isfahan and Markazi Province: Results of the first phase of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

N. Mohamadi-fard, Gh. Sadri, N. Sarraf-zadegan, AM.Baghaie, Sh. Shahrokhi, K. Rabiei, H. Toloiee, M. Rafiei, Sh. Hoseini, S. Asgary, H. Samarian, N. Bashardoost, Gh. Ebrahimi

Background
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in western countries. In Iran, 46% of mortality and morbidity is due to circulatory diseases. The high prevalence of coronary artery diseases in Isfahan led to a comprehensive interventional program aimed to improve risk factors, increase knowledge, attitude and practice.

Objective
The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of CVD risk factors.

Methods
This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in two provinces of Isfahan (case of intervention) and Markazi (control). In Isfahan province, Isfahan and Najaf-Abad were selected and in Markazi province Arak was selected. The sample group comprised 12600 people aged above 19 years who were selected in each province according to age, sex, urban and rural distribution areas. Serum lipids including total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and fasting blood sugar were measured using enzymatic methods after a 14-hour fasting period and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) was measured with Friedwald formula. Two-hour post-load plasma glucose was also measured. Blood pressure measurement was performed using standard WHO protocol. The subjects' weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured while wearing light and thin clothes.

Results
The results showed that 34.3% and 32.2% of the subjects in Isfahan and Markazi Provinces had at least one risk factor; 19.3% and 15% had at least two risk factors, respectively. High LDL-C was the most prevalent risk factor in all groups. High LDL-C, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension were more prevalent in women, and hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C and smoking were more prevalent in men (P<0.05).

Discussion
Based on the obtained results, the prevalence of risk factors is high in the two communities studied. Hence, performing an interventional program is highly recommended. As little difference was seen between the case and control provinces, any possible changes should be considered after the interventions.
Key words
Cardiovascular diseases, Risk factor, Prevalence

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