|A survey of CVD risk factors in smokers, non-smokers and passive smokers (Isfahan Healthy Heart Program)|
Gholam Hossein Sadri, Mohammad Reza Nikmaram, Ahmad Amani, Ali Akbar Rezaee Ashtiani, Ali Moattarian, Saeed Heidari, Shahriar Masoud
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) account for 80% of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. 1.3% of CVD cases are due to cigarette smoking. The prevalence of CVD in smokers is 25% higher than in non-smokers. In view of the increased prevalence of cigarette smoking, particularly among youth and women, attention must be paid to CVD risk factors in active and passive smokers. In this survey, CVD risk factors were compared in active and passive smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers.
Materials and methods
In a cross-sectional study, 12600 people aged over 19 years were selected from rural and urban populations of the provincial cities of Isfahan, Arak and NajafAbabd. Data were collected by a trained team using standardized questionnaires. Blood pressure was measured by a trained team. Fasting venous blood samples were taken and transported to laboratory of Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center under standard conditions. Cigarette smoking was determined by a self-administered questionnaire and subjects were divided into current, passive, ex- and non-smokers. Hematological indices, including serum glucose, lipids, lipoprotein, CBC, CRP, as well as BMI were compared in the four groups.
In the population under study, 45.6% were non-smokers, 15% were current smokers, 4.4% were ex-smokers, and 35% were passive smokers. 94.6% of smokers were male and 60.3% of passive smokers were female. BMI of smokers was 24.3±4.9 kg/m2, which was significantly lower than in other groups. In this study, HDL-C of smokers was 42.4±70.4, which was significantly lower than in non-smokers. Mean WBC count was 7.5±4.7×103, hemoglobin concentration was 15.5±1.7 mg/dl, and CRP measured 3.4 ±1.25.
In view of the differences in hematological factors (i.e. increase in WBC, RBC, hemoglobin and decrease in HDL-C) between smokers and others, it can be concluded that although BMI in the two groups was lower than in non-smokers, high WBC and Hb, and low HDL-C in these groups compared to non-smokers may be the cause of CVD in these individuals. This warrants more studies and interventions to decrease long-term adverse consequences.
Cigarette smoking, Passive smoker, Non-smoker, Ex-smoker, Blood lipids, CVD risk factors, Iran